History on the Daily

History on the Daily

Delivering you a daily dose of history

art-of-swords:

Rapier Hilts

Photo #1

  • Dated: circa 1580
  • Culture: Italian
  • Maker: Francesco Duri
  • Measurements: overall length 121 cm; blade length: 105 cm; weight: 1700 g

Photo #2

  • Dated: 1610
  • Culture: German (Dresden; blade probably Solingen)
  • Measurements: overall length 119 cm; blade length: 101 cm; weight: 1430 g

Photo #3

  • Dated: 1575
  • Culture: Austrian
  • Maker Pery Juan Pockh (Goldsmith)
  • Measurements: overall length 120.6 cm; blade length: 104.3 cm; weight: 1280 g

Photo #4

  • Dated: early 17th century
  • Culture: probably German (Munich)
  • Maker(s): Daniel Sadeler (cutler), Egidius Sedeler; Etienne Delaune
  • Measurements: overall length 118 cm; blade length: 102 cm; weight 1200 g

Source: Copyright © 2014 Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden

historical-nonfiction:

Klephts, meaning “thief” or just “brigand” in Greek, were highwaymen that became self-appointed armatoloi, anti-Ottoman insurgents, and warlike mountain-folk who lived in the countryside when Greece was a part of the Ottoman Empire. They were the descendants of Greeks who had retreated into the mountains during the 1400s to avoid Ottoman occupation and oppression. They carried on a continuous war against Ottoman rule and remained active as brigands until the 1800s, when Greece rebelled against Ottoman rule.

historical-nonfiction:

Klephts, meaning “thief” or just “brigand” in Greek, were highwaymen that became self-appointed armatoloi, anti-Ottoman insurgents, and warlike mountain-folk who lived in the countryside when Greece was a part of the Ottoman Empire. They were the descendants of Greeks who had retreated into the mountains during the 1400s to avoid Ottoman occupation and oppression. They carried on a continuous war against Ottoman rule and remained active as brigands until the 1800s, when Greece rebelled against Ottoman rule.

breathtakingdestinations:

Sultan Ahmed Mosque - Istanbul - Turkey (von -Reji)

breathtakingdestinations:

Sultan Ahmed Mosque - Istanbul - Turkey (von -Reji)

(via spreadingsassyaroundtheworld)

art-of-swords:

Cinquedea Shortsword

  • Dated: early 16th century
  • Culture: Italian
  • Measurements: blade length 57cm (22 1/2 inches)

The sword has a broad flat tapering blade formed with a pair of near full-length shallow fullers and a slender central flat on each face and decorated on each side with pairs of engraved roundels including the figure of Marcus Curtius leaping into the abyss.

The forte us engraved on the respective faces with a panel of scrolling foliage above the Judgement of Paris and a classical triumph. The panels are divided by the central slender flat engraved with the inscription ‘Virtus Omnia Vincit’ (Virtue Conquers All) on one side and ‘In Domino Confido’ (In God I trust) on the other. The forte decoration has traces of original gilding.

The iron hilt comprising arched quillons is engraved with classical profile roundels flanked together by a Pegasus to either side and scrolling renaissance foliage. The shaped tang is enclosed by a pair of gilt panels chased with the inscription ‘Nunquam Potest Non’ and ‘Esse Virtuti Locus’ (there must ever be a place for virtue).

The grip has on each side a shaped ivory panel over a horn fillet (both cracked and chipped, the ivory and horn perhaps later), the former being engraved with a laurel swag, pierced with four holes of differing size and each fitted with a brass collar, and three retaining their tracery rondels on each side (one missing).

The inscription around the tang is a quotation from Lucius Annaeus Seneca’s Medea. The form of the blade is similar to a cinquedea preserved in the Musée de l’ Armée, Paris (inv. no. MA J 34). For related examples see L. G. Boccia & E. T. Coelho 1975, nos. 190-238 and C. Blair 1966.

Source: Copyright © 2014 Thomas del Mar

peashooter85:

A pair of bone and pearl decorated wheel-lock pistols originating from Silesia, circa 1640-1660.

peashooter85:

A pair of bone and pearl decorated wheel-lock pistols originating from Silesia, circa 1640-1660.

(Source: thomasdelmar.com)

historia-polski:

German invasion of Poland, September 1st, 1939

"At 4:45 a.m., some 1.5 million German troops invade Poland all along its 1,750-mile border with German-controlled territory. Simultaneously, the German Luftwaffe bombed Polish airfields, and German warships and U-boats attacked Polish naval forces in the Baltic Sea. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler claimed the massive invasion was a defensive action, but Britain and France were not convinced. On September 3, they declared war on Germany, initiating World War II.

To Hitler, the conquest of Poland would bring Lebensraum, or ‘living space,’ for the German people. According to his plan, the ‘racially superior’ Germans would colonize the territory and the native Slavs would be enslaved. German expansion had begun in 1938 with the annexation of Austria and then continued with the occupation of the Sudetenland and then all of Czechoslovakia in 1939. Both had been accomplished without igniting hostilities with the major powers, and Hitler hoped that his invasion of Poland would likewise be tolerated.

To neutralize the possibility that the USSR would come to Poland’s aid, Germany signed a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union on August 23, 1939. In a secret clause of the agreement, the ideological enemies agreed to divide Poland between them. Hitler gave orders for the Poland invasion to begin on August 26, but on August 25 he delayed the attack when he learned that Britain had signed a new treaty with Poland, promising military support should it be attacked. To forestall a British intervention, Hitler turned to propaganda and misinformation, alleging persecution of German-speakers in eastern Poland. Fearing imminent attack, Poland began to call up its troops, but Britain and France persuaded Poland to postpone general mobilization until August 31 in a last ditch effort to dissuade Germany from war.

Shortly after noon on August 31, Hitler ordered hostilities against Poland to begin at 4:45 a.m. the next morning. At 8 p.m. on August 31, Nazi S.S. troops wearing Polish uniforms staged a phony invasion of Germany, damaging several minor installations on the German side of the border. They also left behind a handful of dead concentration camp prisoners in Polish uniforms to serve as further evidence of the supposed Polish invasion, which Nazi propagandists publicized as an unforgivable act of aggression.

At 4:45 a.m. on September 1, the invasion began. Nazi diplomats and propagandists scrambled to head off hostilities with the Western powers, but on September 2 Britain and France demanded that Germany withdraw by September 3 or face war. At 11 p.m. on September 3, the British ultimatum expired, and 15 minutes later British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain went on national radio to solemnly announce that Britain was at war with Germany. Australia, New Zealand, and India followed suit shortly thereafter. At 5:00 p.m., France declared war on Germany.

In Poland, German forces advanced at a dizzying rate. Employing a military strategy known as the blitzkrieg, or ‘lightning war,’ armored divisions smashed through enemy lines and isolated segments of the enemy, which were encircled and captured by motorized German infantry while the panzer tanks rushed forward to repeat the pattern. Meanwhile, the sophisticated German air force—the Luftwaffe—destroyed Polish air capability, provided air support for the blitzkrieg, and indiscriminately bombed Polish cities in an effort to further terrorize the enemy.

The Polish army was able to mobilize one million men but was hopelessly outmatched in every respect. Rather than take a strong defensive position, troops were rushed to the front to confront the Germans and were systematically captured or annihilated. In a famously ill-fated strategy, Polish commanders even sent horsed cavalry into battle against the heavy German armor. By September 8, German forces had reached the outskirts of Warsaw, having advanced 140 miles in the first week of the invasion.

The Polish armed forces hoped to hold out long enough so that an offensive could be mounted against Germany in the west, but on September 17 Soviet forces invaded from the east and all hope was lost. The next day, Poland’s government and military leaders fled the country. On September 28, the Warsaw garrison finally surrendered to a relentless German siege. That day, Germany and the USSR concluded an agreement outlining their zones of occupation. For the fourth time in its history, Poland was partitioned by its more powerful neighbors.

Despite their declaration of war against Germany, Britain and France did little militarily to aid Poland. Britain bombed German warships on September 4, but Chamberlain resisted bombing Germany itself. Though Germans kept only 23 divisions in the west during their campaign in Poland, France did not launch a full-scale attack even though it had mobilized over four times that number. There were modest assaults by France on its border with Germany but these actions ceased with the defeat of Poland. During the subsequent seven months, some observers accused Britain and France of waging a ‘phony war,’ because, with the exception of a few dramatic British-German clashes at sea, no major military action was taken. However, hostilities escalated exponentially in 1940 with Germany’s April invasion of Norway and May invasion of the Low Countries and France.

In June 1941, Hitler attacked the USSR, breaking his nonaggression with the Soviet Union, and Germany seized all of Poland. During the German occupation, nearly three million Polish Jews were killed in the Nazi death camps. The Nazis also severely persecuted the Slavic majority, deporting and executing Poles in an attempt to destroy the intelligentsia and Polish culture. A large Polish resistance movement effectively fought against the occupation with the assistance of the Polish government-in-exile. Many exiled Poles also fought for the Allied cause. The Soviets completed the liberation of Poland in 1945 and established a communist government in the nation.” (source)

Images: [x][x]

historiandaily:

"We no longer demand anything. We want war." -German Reich Minister for Foreign Affairs Joachim von Ribbentrop.
September 1, 1939- German and Slovakian forces invade Poland, starting the European phase of World War II and often the accepted beginning of the War in general.
Picture- The Royal Castle in Warsaw on fire after being shelled by the Germans, Apoloniusz Zawilski (1972) "Bitwy Polskiego Września" ("Battles of Polish September")

historiandaily:

"We no longer demand anything. We want war." -German Reich Minister for Foreign Affairs Joachim von Ribbentrop.

September 1, 1939- German and Slovakian forces invade Poland, starting the European phase of World War II and often the accepted beginning of the War in general.

Picture- The Royal Castle in Warsaw on fire after being shelled by the Germans, Apoloniusz Zawilski (1972) "Bitwy Polskiego Września" ("Battles of Polish September")

historiandaily:

"I depart, but the State shall always remain."
 Louis XIV of France, the Sun King, died today in 1715 after having ruled for 72 years, the longest of any European monarch.
Picture- Louis XIV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)

historiandaily:

"I depart, but the State shall always remain."

 Louis XIV of France, the Sun King, died today in 1715 after having ruled for 72 years, the longest of any European monarch.

Picture- Louis XIV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)

historiandaily:

"Now we have them in the mousetrap" - Helmuth von Moltke the Elder
"Henri, were you there at Sedan?"
"Yes, Majesty"
"We were not cowards at Sedan, were we?"- Last words of Napoleon III, former Emperor of the French, to his doctor Henri Conneau
September 1, 1870- Prussia defeats the Second French Empire at the Battle of Sedan. The entire French army of 120,000 is killed or captured, including Emperor Napoleon III, leading the French Empire to collapse completely. The new provisional government of France refused to make peace with Prussia, leading to the Siege of Paris and an eventual victory for the newly formed German Empire.
Picture- Napoleon III having a conversation with Bismarck after being captured in the Battle of Sedan (1878 painting by Wilhelm Camphausen)

historiandaily:

"Now we have them in the mousetrap" - Helmuth von Moltke the Elder

"Henri, were you there at Sedan?"

"Yes, Majesty"

"We were not cowards at Sedan, were we?"- Last words of Napoleon III, former Emperor of the French, to his doctor Henri Conneau


September 1, 1870- Prussia defeats the Second French Empire at the Battle of Sedan. The entire French army of 120,000 is killed or captured, including Emperor Napoleon III, leading the French Empire to collapse completely. The new provisional government of France refused to make peace with Prussia, leading to the Siege of Paris and an eventual victory for the newly formed German Empire.

Picture- Napoleon III having a conversation with Bismarck after being captured in the Battle of Sedan (1878 painting by Wilhelm Camphausen)

art-of-swords:

Rapier Hilts

  • First row: 16th century
  • Second row: 17th century

Source: Copyright © 2014 KHM-Museumsverband